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HOMETechnology

Blanks Forming Technology

Casting Process

Sand casting can be used for grey iron casting, ductile iron casting, aluminum casting. There are three kinds of molding processes for sand casting. They are manual molding, semi-machinery molding and automatic molding. Automatic molding line is currently mostly for iron castings making.


Automatic molding machines include two kinds of part line: horizontal part line molding and vertical part line molding. DISA line uses vertical part line molding. SINTO ling takes horizontal part line molding. Normally vertical part line molding is faster than horizontal part line molding. But horizontal part line molding can accommodate more complex cores’ assembly and location for more complex structure parts.


The basic grey iron casting process include patterns design and making, molding, melting , inoculants action of the melting, nodular operation ( only for ductile iron) , pouring, cooling, shaking out, de-gating and after-treatment ( deburrs, grinding , shot blast).


Resin sand casting is mostly for some big size casting parts. The parts can be made up to 10 to 20 tons. The sand is mixed with resin and some catalyzer before molding. The sand mold will become hard by itself after the molding process is done. Coating and heating up for the mold inner surface ( which will contact with the real casting blanks) will be needed.

Shell molding process will create more precision dimensions for the casting blanks. It can be used for iron casting  or steel casting. The shell mold is normally assembled by resin cores out from cold core box or hot core box process. The casting blanks will be totally covered or wrapped by the assembled cores’ surface. The assembled shell molds need to be coated and dried before pouring.

Lost wax casting is mainly used for steel casting , alloy steel casting, stainless steel castings’ making. It can bring better surface quality and dimensions’ precision than sand casting process. The adhesive material for the wax shell’s making is water glass ( Chemical name : Sodium Silicate ). So this process some times can be also named as water glass process. The hardening and drying process of the wax shell need to be aided by adding hardening material 

Investment casting is dedicated for precision castings’ production. It can create better surface quality and dimensions’ precision than lost wax. It is also for steel casting , alloy steel casting, stainless steel castings’ making. The main difference of investment casting to Lost wax casting is that investment casting is using ludox for adhesive material during the wax shell’s making. And the wax for this process is called middle temperature wax which is different from what is used in lost wax casting process. The wax used in lost wax casting process is normally called low temperature wax.  Middle temperature wax can keep the  wax patterns in more stable dimension, shape and structure in stock ,  dipping adhesive , taking sands and drying operations. This will create more precise wax shell mold and finally create more precise casting blanks. 


The main processes of investment casting include patterns design and making, wax injection, assembly wax into trees, clean by wash, dipping adhesive, taking sand onto wax patterns, drying, lost wax, sintering by furnace, melting, pouring, shaking out, degating, sand clean, grinding gating residual, shot blast and checking.

Lost foam casting process can be used for iron casting and steel casting making.  EPC (Expendable casting process) is to use metal patterns to create Foam patterns and assemble the foams into a foam pattern which is exactly like the parts to be made and later to use the coated foam pattern with loose sand to create the mould system by vacuum system for pouring. The foam will disappear during the pouring. Lost foam is one of the most eco-friendly casting processes. This process can also ensure very good dimensional precision.

Low pressure casting is mostly for aluminum casting or zinc alloy casting making. The pouring mold will be metal pattern. The melting will be pushed into the pattern for pouring by a kind of low pressure gas eg. air or inert gases with pressure around 0.01~0.05Mpa.  Low pressure casting can ensure good filling of the mould and good casting quality.

Gravity casting is also mainly for aluminum casting or zinc alloy casting making.


The pouring process is finished by gravity of the melting. Resin cores can be put into the metal patterns to create complex casting’s structure.


Die casting is to use very high pressure to fill the melting into the pattern in a very short time, normally in 0.01~0.2 second. Die casting is mostly suitable for high volume aluminum casting or zinc casting parts’ making. Due to the fast filling it ‘s very easy to have pin holes inside the castings. The die casting parts can not be heat treated accordingly. Some very complex casting with complex inner cavities could be difficult to be made by die casting.

Forging Process

Hot forging process is to press and form the metal at temperature above recrystallization temperature. The steel or alloy steel which is hard to be formed at warm or cold forging process will be done at hot forging process. The complex structure parts which is not easy to be formed in cold forging or warm forging process is normally forged in hot forging process. Hot forging process can normally get refined grain and improved mechanical properties.


Cold forging process is suitable for the low carbon or low carbon alloy steel , aluminum alloy material,copper alloy and some of middle carbon steel .  Cold forging process can get good dimensional precision and good surface quality.

Warm forging process is to be done at temperature around recrystallization temperature.


This process can get good surface quality and dimensional precision under low forming press with comparison to cold forging process. Middle Carbon steel and middle carbon alloy steel is suitable to be formed by this kind of process.


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